区域政策建议开发和使用水产养殖饲料配方替代饮料催化剂，MAE R.Coloso Relicardo m;阿克伦，Belen O.本文基于区域技术咨询期间的讨论和评论，提出了东南亚水产养殖配方中的替代膳食成分的关键问题。还提出了政策建议。
菲律宾水产养殖饲料配方中替代膳食成分的开发和使用现状维兰纽瓦,詹姆斯;Janeo, Edna G. Catacutan, Mae R.;Coloso Relicardo m;阿科斯塔Belen O.报道。2011年，菲律宾在鱼类生产方面排名世界第七。它生产鱼、软体动物、甲壳动物和水生植物(海草)497万吨。菲律宾的水产产量也排在世界第11位，占世界水产产量6270万吨的1.22%。菲律宾的水产养殖通常依赖于商业研磨的水产饲料，2012年达到61,846吨。水产养殖饲料由24.3%的鱼粉组成。副渔获物与垃圾鱼有关。我国垃圾鱼在各个环节的利用情况可概括为:(1)供人类食用; (2) for processing of fish sauce; (3) for production of fish meal; and, (4) as direct feed for aquaculture. In 2013, about 15 thousand mt (24.3%) of fish meal were used wherein 3.97 thousand mt is imported while about 11 thousand mt is assumed to come from the local fish meal. The product lines of these plants are tuna and sardines based meal using heads, tails and whole fish rejected from tuna and sardine canneries. Local fish meal has around 50-55% protein content. Due to limited production and high cost of fish meal, the use of alternative feed ingredients for aqua feed sources are being utilized which include: a) legumes; b) Ipil-ipil leaf meal; c) miscellaneous fodder plants, such as the leaves and other aerial parts of papaya, water hyacinth, Ipomea and sweet potato; d) roots and tubers like arrow roots (Maranta arundinacea), sweet potato(Ipomea batatas L.), cassava (Manihot escolenta Crantz), taro (Colocasia esculenta L.), and elephant yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus); e) cereals and cereal by-products like rice bran and maize and f) oil cakes and oil meals. For feeds of animal origin, African snail meal, Giant toad meal, fish silage, feather meal, maggot meal, mussel (tahong) meal, and Superworm, Zophobas morio are identified. To improve the efficiency of feeding, there are three (3) practices being used in the Philippines. These are a) biomass feeding, b) satiation or Ad Libitum , and c) the use of automatic and demand feeder. For organic aquaculture, azolla and lemna (duckweed) are being cultured in separate ponds or in hapas installed within the ponds and feeding is being done by scooping the plants out to feed the fish. In contrast, lab-lab, an association of microbenthic organism is grown in the ponds using organic fertilizer.
Aquaculture饲料配方中替代膳食成分的Aquafeed开发和利用，ASDA;Kristanto，Anang Hari Catacutan，Mae R.;Coloso Relicardo m;Acosta，Belen O.在印度尼西亚的水产养殖中的鱼类生产持续从2009年的170万吨迅速增长至2013年4.0百万吨（不包括海藻）。这与2009年995,000吨的总饲料产量增加至1.422013年百万公吨和分布在农业区的90％的饲料是由饲料行业生产的。为了满足快速增长的水产养殖业的需求，需要开发新的高品质蛋白质成分，以减少对鱼粉（FM）的依赖。尽管印度尼西亚的当地FM生产高，但总产量的占5％的时间用于Aquafed，其余的主要出口到日本。对于淡水物种，已经为商业饮食中使用FM减少使用FM的努力。如今，淡水种类商业饮食中FM的含量约为5-11％。虾和海洋物种仍然配制成虾的范围为20-30％的Fm，虾类上的> 30％的海洋物种。植物成分的植物成分，特别是大豆膳食（SBM）已分替代FM作为膳食蛋白。 However, SBM is also obtained entirely by import as all national production of soybean in the country are for tempe and tofu processing. Since almost 70% of components in commercial diet is imported ingredients, prices of commercial aquafeed increased through the years and are not competitive compared with price of fish in particular those categorized as low value species like carp, tilapia, catfish, Pangasius and milkfish. In several areas in Indonesia including Sumatera and Kalimantan Island, small-scale feed industry or on-farm feed making has been developed by individual or farmer group due to the limited access to commercial diets. Generally, the farmers use local feed ingredients which are available in their areas such as local fish meal, copra/palm cake meal, rice bran and tapioca. However, the quality of the diets produced varies among groups. Many nutritional studies have been conducted to find alternative protein sources. Local animal sources including shrimp head meal, blood meal, golden snail and vermi meal can be included in diet at rate of 8-30% for grouper species. The use of plant ingredients has been extensively evaluated particularly on herbivorous and omnivorous species to develop least-cost diet formulation. Plant ingredients containing > 20% protein such as copra cake meal, rubber seed, Leucaena leaf, and aquatic weed could be used in diet at different levels from 10-60% depending on the species. The presence of anti-nutritional compounds in plant ingredients is the main constraint in their use in aquafeed. Bio-processing using proper microorganism has been developed to improve their quality. More focus and in-depth research to minimize the negative effects of anti-nutritional compounds and to develop technique of their mass production are recommended.
越南罗布，武纳·卜拉科特丹，MAE R的水产养殖饲料配方中的开发和使用替代膳食成分的现状。Coloso Relicardo m;Acosta，Belen O.本文回顾了Fish Catch生产和Aquafeed的估计需求，越南的Aquafeed，鱼粉，鱼油，大豆餐，2013年。鱼类捕捞量约为280万公吨（MT），而海洋鱼类产量为1.9百万公吨。估计海洋垃圾鱼产量为80万吨，100多种物种，包括占主导地质锚（STOLephorus SPP。），蜥蜴鱼（Saurida SPP。）和小马鱼（Leistognathus SPP）。大约0.5百万公吨的海洋垃圾鱼用于牲畜，水产养殖和鱼粉。本地海洋鱼粉由50至68％的蛋白质含量组成，含有50％至60％的蛋白质水平的鲶鱼副产品。基于5种主要物种的FCR值，包括鲶鱼，黑虎虾，白腿虾，亚洲鲈鱼和蛇头，Aquafeed生产估计约为250万吨。海洋鱼油/鱿鱼肝油需求从15.5到31,000毫秒。鱼粉需求从252和430万吨。 Almost all fish meal and marine fish oil used in aquafeed were imported. Moreover, soybean and other plant ingredients are potential alternative sources to replace fish meal and fish oil. Vietnamese farmers produced 168 thousand mt soybean while soybean demand amounts for aquafeed were from 693 to 1,140 thousand mt. In 2013, feedmills imported approximately 3 million mt of soybean meal (cake) from many countries in the world. Some other plant protein sources which were also imported, have good nutrient profiles but they contain some anti-nutritional factors. In the future, research on replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant and animal by-product sources and feed additives for aquafeed should be studied. In particular, the management of local fish meal plants and capture fishery should be improved.